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Rwanda: Rwanda Health Profile 2012






Rwanda Health Profile 2012

The Ministry of Health is committed to improving the Rwandan population’s health situation by strengthening the quality of service delivered and providing access to treatment through universal health insurance coverage (Mutuelles de Santé).
To enhance public health services, we are in the midst of a deep reform which will address the major traditional problems of health as well as the new challenges posed by the pandemic of HIV/AIDS.
To respond to the Rwandan Government’s ambitious plan for the country’s sustainable development as detailed in its 2020 Vision, we strongly believe that quality of care must continuously be a national priority. For this to happen, we need to focus on human resources development, building and sustaining ‘Mutuelles de Santé’ and reinforcing decentralization within the health sector.


The role of the National Ethics Committee is to safeguard the dignity, rights, health and wellbeing of those participating in biomedical research, to ensure that informed consent is granted, and to approve protocols and research projects which meet ethics standards.

The Committee’s mission is to examine all the human research projects to be conducted anywhere within Rwanda and any modifications to be made to them, regardless of the nationality of the promoters. It also is the approval authority for such projects. Any decision must be
properly justified.

To promote the principle of equity, whereby the weight and benefits of the research must be equitably distributed among all groups and classes of society.

The purpose of the ethics committee is to bring to research projects competent independent analysis in the area of ethics. It also oversees quality assurance of biomedical research.

About the Rwanda National Ethical Comitee

The Rwanda National Ethics Committee was created in May 2003 by Dr Ezechias Rwabuhihi, Minister of Health.
Dr Jean-Damascene Ntawukuliyayo: Chairman, Professor Justin Wane: Secretary, Five others members: Sister Josephine Mukamunana, Pasteur Elizee Musemakweli, Mrs. Rose Mukantabana,Dr Naasson Munyandamutsa, Dr kayitesi Kayitenkore

On 15th February 2005, Dr Jean-Damascene Ntawukuliyayo, the former Honorable Minister of Health appointed an Acting Chairman and added a new member: Professor Emmanuel Bajyana. The Minister of Health, being the regulatory authority is no more a member of the National Ethics Committee.

For a thorough and complete review, all research proposals shall be submitted with the following information to NEC at least 15 (fifteen) working days before the scheduled meeting date.

  • 11copies of the request letter
  • 11 copies of the protocol and summary
  • 11 copies of the patient informed consent and the patient information sheet in English or French and Kinyarwanda
  • 11 copies of the financial agreements with the researchers
  • 11 copies of the previous decisions from other ethics committees or regulatory Authorities
  • 11 copies of placebo usage justification (if necessary)
  • 5 copies of the researcher’s brochure (Phase I, II & III)
  • One copy of each researcher’s CV (1 copy of each document)
  • One copy of the insurance certificate if any
  • To provide study budget
  • A check for submission fees made out to the Ethics Committee must be enclosed with the file submitted. The submission fees can also be paid to the following account number: Rwanda National Ethics Committee 130- 10 53 298 in COGEBANQUE.
  • The principal Investigator(PI)/ Co- investigator should come to present the Protocol at the meeting.

Health Indicators

Population & Medical Personnel

Total population: 10,412,820 millions
Per Capita GNI:US $367.73(NISR 2007)
Doctors: 1/18,000 inhabitants
Nurses: 1/1,476 inhabitants
62.8% of Nurses in rural areas(2008)and 78% (2010)
38.2% of Nurses in Urban areas(2008)and 22% 2010

Infant and Maternal Mortality

Infant mortality: 62/1000 (Interim DHS 2007/2008)
Under 5 Mortality: 103/1000 (Interim DHS 2007/2008)
Maternal mortality: 383/ 100,000 (Estimation, 2009)
Assisted deliveries:62% (HMIS 2009),55% HMIS 2010

HIV/AIDS and other epidemics

HIV prevalence: 3% (DHS+2005)
TB (2007): 8,014 cases in the country
60% of HIV patients are diagnosed with TB
Malaria admission cases in hospitals 36.8% (PNLP/MoH 2006,3.5% 2010
Children U5 sleeping under LLIN:60%(MIS 2007)
Malaria prevelance in children U5:2.4%(MIS 2007)

Number of ARV sites:295 (TRACNet/MoH 2009)

Number of VCT sites:419(TRACNet/MoH 2009)
Number of PMTCT sites:382(TRACNet/MoH 2009)
Adults on ARVs 75.930 (TRAC/MoH 2009)
Children on ARVs 7.111 (TRAC/MoH 2009)

TB annual Risk 2% (WHO)2007

Number of TB cases:8014(HMIS PNILT 2007)
TB patients who are HIV positive: 89%.PNILT 2007

Family Planning

  • Contraceptive prevalence: 36% (IDHS 2007/2008)
  • Use of Modern Contraception Methods:
  • -DHS 2000 = 4%
  • -DHS 2005 = 10%
  • -IDHS 2007/2008=27%

Other Health Indicators

Under 5 years severe malnutrition: 19.4% (IDHS, 2005)
Per capita utilisation of Health facilities : 70%(HMIS 2007), 83 Visit person/year
Life expectancy at birth 52.73 (UNDP 2007)

Rate of Enrollment in Community Based Health Insurance ( Mutuelle de Sante)

  • -2006=44%
  • -2007=75%
  • -2008=85%
  • -2009=86%
  • -2010=91.036 %