Asia > Eastern Asia > China > The downsides to Singapore’s education system: streaming, stress and suicides

China: The downsides to Singapore’s education system: streaming, stress and suicides

2017/09/23

Singapore’s education system is reputed for producing children who top the world rankings in standardised tests. The city national took initial place in the last Pisa (world education rankings.

The country’s school system is geared towards high succcess in exams, but the emphasis on rote learning and memorisation, combined with pressure to succeed, affects children’s social skills, health and in general happiness .Run by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pisa tests, conducted each three years, are intended as a measure of problem-solving and cognition. From presently on Singapore’s superiority in the rankings may be coming at an equally high price.


Hong Kong not equipping students for the next inclunding Singapore or South Korea, study says

Children in the Lion City experience high stress levels from primary school as a result of competitive pressure from schools and parents. It’s arguable whether the perfect scores produce adults who are critical thinkers or merely rote learners, and concerns have been expressed about a lack of development in behavioural and social skills.

In 2015, there were a reported 27 suicides part 10- to 19-year-olds in Singapore, double that of the previous year and the highest for additional than a decade, according to the Samaritans of Singapore. In May 2016, an 11-year-old boy jumped to his death from the 17th floor of a flat block, fearful of sharing his exam results with his parents. It was the initial time the child had failed a subject.

The problems inherent in Singapore’s education system will be familiar to Hongkongers. Both cities have large class sizes, are highly competitive, and focus on rote learning and test results, with a culture of extracurricular private tutorials.

Hong Kong’s student suicide rate is as well cause for concern. A statement commissioned by the government, made public early this year, revealed that 71 students took their lives between 2013 and 2016.

Hong Kong ranked ninth in the last Pisa tests, below Taiwan (fourth) and Macau (sixth).

Howard Tan, a former Singapore primary-school teacher turned private tutor, says he has encountered parents who put undue pressure on their youngsters.

“It’s too simplistic to say that the pressure comes from the system. A lot of pressure comes from parents,” he says, adding that he’s seen parents express disappointment with their children for scoring less than 90 % in tests. “As a teacher, I hardly push my students that way. The system necessitates that from the parents,” he says.

Tan teaches eight- and nine-year-olds, and his private tuition classes wrap up at 9pm. “I have one eight-year-old student taking multiple tuition classes from multiple tutors per subject, amounting to 11 tuition sessions a week. Does she have time for anything else?”

Tan says that at the same time as he taught physical education classes in primary school, he noticed that a number of children lacked motor skills. “In preschool ... they need to socialise and learn conflict resolution with other kids. A lot of of the children I taught didn’t know how to transaction with disagreements; they would shout because they didn’t know any better,” he says.

[Singaporean children can produce the highest Pisa scores, but as well have the highest stress levels.]

High student-to-teacher ratios are a large problem in Singaporean schools, Tan says, but pressure as well stems from the practice of streaming – with pupils of the same year being segregated into different classes based on results and assessments in several key gateways.

Streaming is where the Singapore system differs from Hong Kong’s. However, segregation of “bright and slow” students still happens in Hong Kong, in the form of school banding.

Singapore’s compulsory education system consists of six years of primary school, four years of secondary, and between one and three years of post-secondary school. Students undergo two major exams before even leaving primary school.

At the end of primary year four, pupils are tested to determine the courses they will take in English, mathematics, mother tongue, and science. At the end of primary school, they take the Primary School Leaving Examination, which determines the stream a pupil will follow in secondary education.

There are four streams: Appropriate, Express, Normal Academic, and Normal Technical. Appropriate comprises about 10 % of pupils, and is an accelerated pathway to university. Fifty % make the Express track, which may lead due to university or initially to junior college. Twenty % pursue the Normal track, leading to polytechnic institute, while the remainder fall into Normal Technical, which leads to a qualification at the Institute of Technical Education.

Some Singapore parents regard streaming as beneficial for children with different learning capacities. Maida Genato, who has three children at school, says: “For the slow learners, if you teach at a faster pace, they may have a hard time adjusting, whereas for fast learners, if you slow the pace they may get bored.”

Tan, however, says that with class sizes of 30 to 40 pupils, streaming will fail a lot of children.

Jamie Sisson, an education lecturer at University of South Australia, says streaming and high-stakes testing increase stress on children and parents.
There is hard evidence proving that below high school, homework does not have a positive impact on learning
Jamie Sisson

“[It serves] to limit opportunities for learners that later affects their opportunities in life. Humans are complex beings. It is difficult to determine at a young age what someone is capable of achieving later in life,” she says.

The Singaporean concept of kiasu – a Hokkien word meaning “afraid to lose” – may explain why parents enrol their children in extracurricular tuition in the hope they will excel in test scores.

Genato, a Filipino, says she’s noticed that her daughter’s ethnic Chinese classmates tend to be pushed harder. “It must be a cultural thing,” she adds.

Sisson says she has observed that young adults of Chinese descent, inclunding Singaporeans, sometimes find it hard to adapt to the university’s style of teaching.

“I’m seeing students, particularly from China, struggle because they’re used to memorising answers. At the same time as they come to study in Australia, they have to shift their way of thinking.”

Sisson advocates a democratic, student-centred pedagogy, a teaching ethos by which students play a significant role in defining course policies, materials covered, and other aspects of schooling.

“Research shows that placing high price on test scores has led to narrow views of teaching and learning,” she says. “Such practices focus on memorising facts that have been determined by others to be of worth.

“If we don’t understand how things work in the context of real life, again we don’t understand, we’re just memorising. This can limit children’s opportunities to develop skills significant to being innovative problem solvers we need someday.”

Sisson refers to a widely cited statement by British-based business lecturer Sally Chan, titled The Chinese Learner – a question of style. Chan writes: “The popular view is that the stresses of learning and need to excel academically leave the Chinese student with little choice but to resort to rote learning of the essentials to pass the examinations ... Such learning modes are believed to dominate classroom behaviour for Chinese students in Hong Kong, China and Southeast Asia.”

Although primary-school children in Singapore spend an uncommon all of time dealing with homework and extracurricular tuition, the benefits are questionable.

“There is hard evidence proving that below high school, homework does not have a positive impact on learning,” Sisson says, citing the example of Finland, which takes a holistic approach to education. Finnish students have little or no homework, and there is no private tuition culture in the country.

Finland came sixth in the new Pisa rankings, and its schools produce young adults who are critical thinkers and problem-solvers.
In preschool ... they need to socialise and learn conflict resolution with other kids. A lot of of the children I taught didn’t know how to transaction with disagreements
Howard Tan

Finnish children don’t start school until they are seven years old, and there is only one standardised test, administered in the final year of high school. School holidays are longer. Finland ranked fifth in the UN’s 2016 World Happiness Statement; Singapore ranked 26th.

Last year, Singapore’s Ministry of Education announced that a new scoring system would come into result in 2021, claiming it will reduce stress by encouraging pupils to focus on their own learning rather that competition with their classmates.

Currently, a student’s Primary School Leaving Examination accumulation is the sum of T-scores from all four subjects taken. T-scores indicate how well a pupil has performed relative to peers in the subjects. From 2021, pupils’ scores will no longer be benchmarked against their classmates’, the ministry says, admitting: “The way that the T-score is calculated may have as well created unhealthy competition part our young children.”

Roy Ngerng is a Singaporean activist, who in 2014 was found guilty of defaming Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong on his sociopolitical blog, in comments about the city national’s pension fund. In an article titled ““New” PSLE Education Scoring System: Does it Change Anything?” Ngerng concludes that the change “still puts excessive focus on academic results”, and that students will actually find it harder to obtain higher scores.

Ngerng suggests that “healing” the system would require a combination of reducing class sizes and the administrative workload of teachers so they can focus on the development of each child, which would in turn reduce stress levels.

He as well suggests a reduction in school hours. This would give teachers room for additional creative activities to develop children’s critical thinking skills, he says

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