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Asia: Asia Agricultural Profile

2012/08/13

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Asia Agricultural Profile

Agriculture is by far the most important economic activity in Almost 60% of the continent's working population is engaged in farming. Farmers cultivate, either continuously or intermittently, one-sixth of's total land area. The land they use for livestock grazing accounts for an additional one-fifth.
 
In Communist-ruled—China, Mongolia, North Korea, and Vietnam—most agricultural lands are organized into large, state-controlled and state-owned units such as cooperatives, state farms, and collectives. However, these proved inefficient and unpopular. This system was replaced by a system in which farmers were supposed to produce certain amount of crops for the state and the surplus could be sold in the open market. The Chinese government gradually relaxed its crop requirements, and now many farm families raise and sell crops as they choose. Farmers are usually allowed to use small private plots from these units to grow vegetables and raise livestock.
 
In non-Communist, subsistence farming on privately owned plots is widespread. Some cash crops are also produced on small, privately owned farms. Commercial farming on large holdings or plantations, which produce mainly export crops such as rubber, is practiced primarily in southern and eastern. Shifting agriculture, mainly of the slash-and-burn type, predominates in some areas. This type of agriculture follows a cyclical pattern, in which land is cleared by cutting and burning, cultivated until it is no longer productive, and then abandoned for new land.
 
Paddy rice is the chief crop and staple food in much of the continent, particularly in southern and eastern. Wheat is next in importance. The countries of—led by China and India—produce more than 90 percent of the world's supply of rice. The main wheat-growing areas are northeastern China; Central, especially Kazakhstan; Russia and Turkey and the upper Ganges River valley in India and Pakistan.
 
In addition to rice, other principal food crops in southern and eastern include millet, sorghum, barley, corn, sweet potatoes and yams, cassava, peanuts, soybeans, and a variety of peas and beans. A different array of crops, those suited to relatively dry conditions and oasis agriculture, are produced in western and southwestern. Cereals, lentils, and vegetables are grown mainly for local markets. Export crops include citrus fruit, nuts, dates, figs, and coffee.
 
The most valuable commercial crops are grown primarily in southern and eastern. Among them are rubber and palm nuts in Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand; tea in Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia and China; cotton in India, Pakistan, China, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; jute in Bangladesh, China and India; and sugarcane in India, Pakistan, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Sericulture (the production of silk by raising silkworms) in Japan, China, India, and North and South Korea accounts for most of the world's raw silk. Much of the world's supply of spices, including pepper, ginger, and cinnamon, comes from.
 
The continent's vast flatlands and plateaus support many types of livestock. In South, farmers who raise livestock use the animals chiefly to help with the work. In the less fertile parts of Central, North, and Southwest, many people raise for their milk, cheese, meat, fur and hides. Manure from livestock is used as fertilizer and sometimes as a cooking fuel.
 
Meat, which is consumed in relatively small amounts in, is provided by hogs, poultry, sheep, and goats. The great majority of the hogs are raised in China, where they are a chief source of meat. There is little hog raising in predominantly Muslim nations, because their religion forbids Muslims to eat pork. Cattle and water buffalo are raised primarily for milk and for use as draft animals. India has the greatest number of cattle; however, these animals are held sacred by Hindus, so many serve no economic purpose.
 
Sheep, goats, and horses are raised in short-grass regions. Nomadic herders in the semidesert areas of southwestern and central raise goats, sheep, and camels. Yaks, sheep, and goats are kept on the Tibetan Plateau, and reindeer herds on the Siberian tundras.

In Communist-ruled AsiaChina, Mongolia, North Korea, and—most agricultural lands are organized into large, state-controlled and state-owned units such as cooperatives, state farms, and collectives. However, these proved inefficient and unpopular. This system was replaced by a system in which farmers were supposed to produce certain amount of crops for the state and the surplus could be sold in the

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Asia admin 04/20/2015 - 07:21